Turkmenistan – is a state in Central Asia. In the north Turkmenistan borders with the Republic of Kazakhstan, in the north-east and in the east Turkmenistan shares borders with the Republic of Uzbekistan, in the south-east Turkmenistan borders with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, and in the south – with the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the west the country’s natural boundary is the Caspian Sea, through which Turkmenistan borders with the Republic of Azerbaijan.
September 27 is marked in Turkmenistan as the Independence Day. On December 12, 1995, Turkmenistan was recognized as a permanently neutral State by the resolution of the UN General Assembly with the unanimous support of 185 member States. At present Turkmenistan has established diplomatic relations with 151 countries.
Turkmenistan is a democratic, law-based, secular State. The form of government is a Presidential republic. The political structure of the Turkmen state is formed in accordance with the Constitution of Turkmenistan, adopted on May 18, 1992 (revised on September 14, 2016). The Constitution of Turkmenistan is the basic law of the State. According to that law, Turkmenistan’s state structure is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches which act independently and balance each other. Constitutionally fixed norms and provisions are directly applicable. Laws and other legal acts that contradict the Constitution have no legal force.
The State guarantees the freedom of religions and confessions and their equality before the law. Religious organizations are separate from the State and may not interfere in State affairs or fulfill state functions. The public education system is separate from religious organizations and is secular.
The President of Turkmenistan is the highest official of Turkmenistan. He is the Head of the State and executive power. The President of Turkmenistan chairs the Cabinet of Ministers – the Government of Turkmenistan. The President of Turkmenistan is the guarantor of the country’s independence and neutral status of Turkmenistan, its territorial integrity; of respect for the Constitution; and of fulfillment of international obligations. The President of Turkmenistan is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan.
Milli Gengesh of Turkmenistan (The Parliament) is a representative body having the legislative authority.
Milli Gengesh of Turkmenistan consists of two chambers – the Halk Maslahaty and the Mejlis.
Halk Maslahaty consists of 56 members, 48 of which are elected from each welayat (region) and the city of Ashgabat on the basis of indirect electoral right by secret voting at the Halk Maslakhaty (People’s Council) sessions in the regions, Ashgabat, and eight are appointed by the President of Turkmenistan.
Mejlis is composed of 125 deputies elected on the basis of general, equal and direct electoral right through secret ballot.
Judicial power in Turkmenistan resides solely in the courts. The judicial branch is meant to safeguard the rights and freedoms of citizens and the legally protected interests of the State and society.
Turkmenistan is one of the five states of Central Asia and ranks second among them in terms of its territory. The territory of Turkmenistan covers 491 200 km2. Its territory stretches for 1100 km from west to east and extends for 650 km from north to south.
Administrative and territorial structure
The capital city of Turkmenistan is Ashgabat, which is an administrative and territorial unit with province-wide powers (velayat). Ashgabat consists of 4 districts (etraps): Bagtyyarlyk district, Berkararlyk district, Kopetdag district, Buzmeyin district.
Turkmenistan is divided into 5 provinces – Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mary. Each province is divided into districts.
Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan
Official website: https://www.mfa.gov.tm